Colonial and Federal Eras (Part 1). Chapters 22-27.
Chapter 22 (Clark) considers the wide variety of beverages available in the American colonies during the 18th century, both alcoholic and non-alcoholic, examines their comparative cost and economic importance, and how political change influenced popularity and consumer purchase decisions. Chapter 23 (Gay) challenges the commonly held assumption that North American chocolate preferences were dependent on European traditions. His chapter also describes American manufacturing methods and how producers maximized their competitive advantage using home made equipment, local labor, and innovative marketing methods. Chapter 24 (Macpherson) traces the introduction and spread of cacao and chocolate in Canada from the early 17th century into the 20th century and identifies relationships among chocolate and health, marketing, manufacture, cooking, importation and taxation, and popular customs. Chapter 25 (Jonah, Fougere, and Moses) examines the 18th century chocolate history of Fortress Louisbourg, capital of French colony of Ile Royale, Cape Breton, Canada. Using archaeological and curatorial collections, the authors illustrate the complex patterns of exchange during this historic period defined by military conflicts and changing political ideas. Chapter 26 (Blaschke) considers the development of the cocoa and chocolate industry in New England from the early 18th century through early 20th century, especially the growth of the chocolate industry as related to labor and gender issues, and use of chocolate and cocoa by Union forces during the American Civil War. Chapter 27 (Grivetti) considers production, sale, and social uses of chocolate in Boston during the 18th and early 19th centuries based upon Colonial and Federal Era newspaper articles and advertisements that described events occurring in this important New England port.