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How Chocolate Can Save the Planet by Joanne Silberner

20 Mar

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=16354380

 Joao Tavares, a fourth-generation cocoa farmer Anna Vigran, NPR

Joao Tavares, a fourth-generation cocoa farmer in the eastern state of Bahia, Brazil, grows chocolate using a method called cabruca. His cacao trees are grown under the canopy of larger rainforest trees.

Many people agree that chocolate is good for the soul, and researchers are finding that chocolate can be good for the body, too. But the environment? How could chocolate help with global climate change?

The answer is found in a little piece of paradise, a patch of rainforest in eastern Brazil. Everywhere you look, something is growing. Orchids nestle in the crooks of trees. There are hundreds of shades of green, and the forest is loud with birds and insects.

Some areas have been thinned out and planted with cacao trees — the source of chocolate. The pods contain the magical beans that Aztecs counted like gold. The cultivated cacao trees grow just a bit higher than a man can reach, and rainforest trees tower over them like something out of Dr. Seuss — some round like lollipops, some flat like a plate.

And here’s the climate connection. Rainforest trees and plants store massive amounts of carbon — keeping it from getting into the air as carbon dioxide.

Cocoa pods grow directly off the trunk of a cacao tree. Anna Vigran, NPR

Cocoa pods grow directly off the trunk of a cacao tree. The seeds inside are roasted and fermented to make chocolate

Can Chocolate Help Save the Rainforest?

There’s a lot less rainforest than there once was. There used to be 330 million acres of rainforest in eastern Brazil, called the Mata Atlantica. Settlers arrived hundreds of years ago and began destroying the forest for the wood, and to create fields for pasture and crops. Only 7 percent of the Mata Atlantica remains, and destruction is still going on. Every time a tree is burned, its stored carbon is released. As more carbon is released into the air, the planet gets warmer.

That worries Dario Ahnert, a plant expert at the State University of Santa Cruz in Eastern Brazil. He says farmers need an incentive to save the remaining forest, and he hopes chocolate will be that incentive.

Chocolate used to be a huge industry here, but in the past two decades, plant disease and low prices in the world market for cocoa beans devastated the industry. Farmers turned to other ways of making a living, including logging trees or burning the forest for farmland or pasture. When the nutrients in the soil were used up, the land was abandoned.

Ahnert wants to persuade farmers to return to chocolate farming and preserve the forest. His friend, Joao Tavares, shows it can be done.

Dario Ahnert, a plant expert at the State University of Santa Cruz Anna Vigran, NPR

Dario Ahnert, a plant expert at the State University of Santa Cruz in eastern Brazil, is trying to help farmers grow chocolate that is both profitable and helps preserve the forest.

Cabruca Farming

Joao Tavares is a fourth-generation cocoa producer. Tavares, along with his brother and father, has 2,200 acres of rainforest planted with cacao trees. They grow cocoa using a method called cabruca — cutting down just a few of the tall rainforest trees, and planting the mid-height cacao trees underneath.

Inside Tavares’ cabruca forest, the ground is covered in a thick layer of composting leaves. It’s moist, shady and cool here in the cabruca. Football-shaped pods — striped in yellow and green and orange and brown — jut out from the trunks and branches of the cacao trees.

Tavares has worked hard to maintain, and also to restore, his little piece of the rainforest. He says that in the past 10 years, he has planted many wild trees.

“We understand that we have to preserve the cabruca,” Tavares says, “even if you have less production.”

He gets fewer cacao trees to the acre by planting inside the forest. But he avoids the drawbacks other farmers struggle with when they grow cacao trees on more open land.

“You have more production, but you have lots of problems,” Tavares explains. “You have more disease, more insects, so we decide to preserve.”

There’s also an expanding market for environmentally friendly chocolate. Tavares has been able to get a premium for some of his crop.

Tavares' cocoa plantation. Joanne Silberner, NPR

Tavares has planted his cacao trees — the source of chocolate — under a taller canopy of rainforest trees in cabruca-style farming.

Carbon Credits for Farmers?

Still, his friend, professor Ahnert, admits that cabruca is a tough sell: Farmers want more so-called modern approaches and quicker money. That’s why Ahnert hopes that cabruca can become part of the carbon credit market. Farmers would then get money for preserving forest trees, as well as for their chocolate.

“You could increase the income, so I hope some day people that maintain this area are able to get carbon credits,” Ahnert says.

The World Agroforestry Center and the chocolate manufacturer Mars Inc. are currently studying how carbon storage can be measured on cabruca-like farms, and whether a carbon credit system would help farmers — and the environment.

A worker on Tavares' farm rakes cocoa beans drying in the sun. Anna Vigran, NPR

The cocoa beans are dried in the sun. A worker on Tavares’ farm rakes them to make sure they are all exposed and dried evenly.

Reviving the Land through Chocolate

And there’s an even more ambitious idea out there. Howard Shapiro, chief agronomist at Mars, hopes that chocolate could even bring back a little of the forest paradise that’s been lost.

He’s doing tests with local scientists at Brazil’s national chocolate research institute.

“This is an area that’s been planted on degraded land,” Shapiro says, giving a tour of the three-acre research plot.

After the forest disappeared, the soil became hard and compact, like yellow cement. Only weeds grew in it. Shapiro and his colleagues asked local farmers what sort of plants they would like, both in the long run and while they wait for the soil to become rich enough to support cacao trees.

“What we decided to do was, we would begin with annual crops,” Shapiro explains. “Corn, beans — things that have a cash crop value — melons, squashes, and begin to establish bananas for shade, then start to plant cacao.”

They also planted rubber trees, and heliconium flowers. The first plants went in seven years ago. Now it’s easy to grab a handful of soil. It’s dark brown, moist and crumbly, like devil’s food cake — with worms. But the worms are good for the soil.

  Howard Shapiro, chief agronomist at chocolate manufacturer Mars Inc. Anna Vigran, NPR

Howard Shapiro, chief agronomist at chocolate manufacturer Mars Inc., is working with Brazil’s national chocolate research institute to make abandoned, deforested land profitable again. The experiment includes planting many cash crops, including chocolate.

“See all the little flowers on this tree?” Shapiro asks, pointing to a cacao tree. “All those little pink buds. … It’s healthy. These trees are healthy.”

Shapiro wants to work out the details, but he’s ready to say the project is a success. “We learned that you could take totally abandoned land, and you could restore it to profitability after about three years,” he says.

So, will preserving, and even replanting, some of this forest in eastern Brazil fix the Earth’s climate problem? No. But in this little corner of the world, it may help. And at least we’ll have more chocolate.

Produced by Anna Vigran

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